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2009

ALIRAN-ALIRAN DRAMA

IV. ALIRAN-ALIRAN
a.    Klasisme: aturan sebuah naskah sangat ditaati, antara lain, lakon berjalan lima babak, dan temanya sekitar kutukan akan jatuh kepada manusia yang laknat. Pengarang dari kurun klasik Yunani diantaranya Sopochles (Oedipus Sang Raja; terjemahan W.S. Rendra), Aristophanes (Lysistrata; terjemahan W.S. Rendra)
b.    Neoklasisme: Bentuk drama dengan tiga segi yang mendasar: kebenaran, kesusilaan, dan kegaiban. Syahadat kaum neoklasik adalah segenap alam dikuasai oleh satu Tuhan.
c.    Romantisisme: bentuk drama yang lahir abad ke-18 diwarnai oleh sikap yang kukuh, bahwa manusia dapat menemukan apa saja berkat keampuhan analisa akalnya, dan tindakan apa pun bentuknya dapat dituntun oleh sifat alamnya. Pengarang drama aliran ini adalah James Knowles (Virginius), dan akhirnya patut disebut dengan Friedrich von Schiller (Nyonya Muda dari Orleans), dan Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (Egmont).
d.    Realisme: Bentuk drama yang tumbuh pada abad ke-19, bergaung dari tata nilai yang berlaku akibat pikiran kaum positivisme, terutama pengaruh  buku Charles Darwin (The Origin of the Species). Terjadi keraguan akan eksistensi Tuhan. Pengarang drama dari aliran ini adalah Henrik Ibsen (Hantu-hantu; terjemahan Jim Adi Limas), George Bernard Shaw (Perawan Johana dari Ark; terjemahan Remy Sylado), Nikolai Gogol (Inspektur Jenderal; terjemaan Asrul Sani), dan Anton Chekov (Paman Vanya; terjemahan Jim Adi Limas).
e.    Simbolisme: sebutan lain neoromantisisme dan impresionisme. Aliran ini berangkat dari gerakan kesadaran bahwa hakekat kebenaran hanya mungkin dipahami oleh intuisi. Ia menolak sifat-sifat yang umum tentang pengetian “kenyataan”. Maka kebenaran sebagai suatu kenyataan tidak bisa dirumuskan dengan bahasa logika sendiri. Ia hanya bisa diarahkan dengan simbol-simbol. Pengarang aliran ini adalah Maurice Maeterlink (Pelleas dan Mellisande).
f.    Ekspresionisme: Aliran di abad ke-20 ini menantang keampuhan realisme. Mula-mula ia berkembang di seni rupa, pada Van ogh dan Gauguin, dan di musik pada Schonberg. Pelopor ekspresionisme dalam teater adalah August Strindberg (Sang Ayah; terhemahan Boen S. Oemarjati) Ernst Toller (Transfigurasi), dan George Kaisar (Dari Pagi sampai Tengah Malam).
g.    Epik Teater: Bentuk drama sekitar PD II, dibenahi oleh Bertold Brecht. Ia menganggap teater telah terkulai dalam keadaan lelah, dan oleh sebab itu perlu adanya tenaga yang sanggup mendenyutkan lagi. Ia menggunakan tiga kata kunci: historifikasi adalah bagian terbesar dari aliensasi, yakni perumusan teori Brecht tentang teater “Harus Jadi Asing” kembali.
h.    Absurdisme: Bentuk drama dari tahun 50-an sama sekali bersumbu pada pandangan bahwa dunia ini netral. Kenyataan dan kejadian adalah tak berwujud. Jika manusia mengatakan  suatu peristiwa tak bersusila, hal itu tidaklah dianggap dengan sendirinya asusila, tetapi itu disebabkan oleh pikirannya sendiri yang mengatakab itu asusila. Tidak ada kebenaran yang obyektif. Setiap insan harus menemukan nilai-nilai hidup yang sanggup menghidupkan hidupnya, sejauh itu ia pun harus mau menerima bahwa nilai-nilai yang ditemukannya itu sesungguhnya absurd. Pengarang aliran ini adalah Samuel Beckett, Eugene Ionesco, Arthur Adamov, Jean Genet, Herold Pinter, Edward Albee, dan Fernando Arrabal.

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